Biological cycle of coral makes these marine species is particularly sensitive to production: Corals live long and grow very slowly, mature late and inactive multiply. In addition, equipment that is used for the extraction of coral, destroying the habitat of invertebrate creatures living in coral colonies. Furthermore, increased concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere may lead to the dissolution of coral reefs because of rising ocean acidity. Scientists previously had known that the increase in the level of carbon dioxide leads to an increase in ocean acidity. Under the action of acid corals lose their calcium carbonate – the main component of their skeletons. According to scientists, when the concentration of carbon dioxide reached 560 parts per million – is two times higher than in pre-industrial era – the coral reefs will stop growing and begin to dissolve.
Experiment on ocean fertilization failed Indo-German experiment Lohafex fertilization of Antarctic waters iron sulfate, which was planned that the fertilizer will cause the growth of phytoplankton (microscopic algae), which will increase the capacity of ocean water from the atmosphere to absorb carbon dioxide, failed. As part of the experiment the scientists sprayed from the vessel Polarstern on an area over 300 square kilometers, about six tonnes of iron sulphate. This has led to intensive growth of microscopic algae: the mass of phytoplankton has doubled in two weeks. However, the rapid growth of phytoplankton attracted zooplankton, which was to eat microscopic algae. As a result, carbon was not buried, but remained within the ecosystem of the ocean.